How does air pollution affect tourism?
(1) Air pollution significantly reduces domestic tourist arrivals in the local city. (2) Air pollution demonstrates significant spatial spillover effects. If the PM 2.5 in other cities simultaneously increases by 1 μ g/m 3 , the number of domestic tourists traveling to the local city rises by 4.1%.
Is air pollution a problem in Malaysia?
Air pollution has been an ongoing problem in many countries in the Southeast Asia region, and Malaysia is one of the worst affected. The main cause of this haze is the slash and burn practice by farmers and peat fires blown by the wind from Indonesia.
What is the main cause of air pollution in Malaysia?
In Malaysia, pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels emitted by vehicles is one of the main cause for air pollution in Malaysia. Adding to that, bauxite mining has been a growing concern in Malaysia.
What are the effects of pollution from tourists?
Tourism often puts pressure on natural resources through over-consumption, often in places where resources are already scarce. Tourism puts enormous stress on local land use, and can lead to soil erosion, increased pollution, natural habitat loss, and more pressure on endangered species.
How does plastic pollution affect tourism?
If plastic waste is incinerated, it releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, thereby increasing carbon emissions. Plastic waste damages the aesthetic value of tourist destinations, leading to decreased tourism-related incomes and major economic costs related to the cleaning and maintenance of the sites.
How can tourism negatively affect societies?
Negative social impacts of tourism. These negative social impacts include; social change; changing values; increased crime and gambling; changes in moral behaviour; changes in family structure and roles; problems with the tourist-host relationship and the destruction of heritage.
What are the effects of air pollution in Malaysia?
As estimated, 17.9 million die due to CVD each year, which amounts to 31% of all deaths. Similarly, CVDs are the leading cause of death in Malaysia with a mortality rate of 35% (WHO 2016b). Air pollution and CVD are highly linked as 60–80% of air pollution–related deaths are due to CVD (WHO 2017).
What kind of pollution is in Malaysia?
Air pollution in Malaysia falls into three main categories: air pollution due to exhaust gas from mobile emission sources such as motor vehicles, principally in urban areas; haze caused by the weather and by forest fires in neighboring Indonesia; and pollution caused by industrial activities.
How does tourism affect the environment negatively?
Some of the negative environmental impacts of tourism are as follows: increase in water and energy consumption; increase in pollution (air, water, noise, etc.); destruction of flora and fauna, deforestation; increase in solid waste; disruption of wildlife behavior and feeding and breeding patterns; crowding and …
How does climate change affect tourism?
Many types of tourism are weather dependent and by extension, climate dependent. It is therefore very likely that climate change will affect your business area sooner or later. Climate change can reduce snow cover, increase and prolong heat waves or change the patterns of annual rainfall for example.