What are the symptoms of PSSM in horses?
Clinical signs of PSSM range from mild to severe. They include sweating, lameness, sore muscles, undiagnosed lameness, poor performance, and muscle tremors (“tying up”). These may occur with or without exercise. Under saddle, affected horses may be reluctant to go forward or collect.
How does a horse get EPSM?
EPSM is thought to arise from the individual’s inability to properly utilize the soluble carbohydrates consumed as sugars and starches in the grains and sweet feeds typically fed to American horses.
How is PSSM diagnosed?
Muscle Biopsy: PSSM can be diagnosed based on microscopic evaluation of a muscle biopsy in horses over two years-of-age, however, a definitive diagnosis of the type 1 form of PSSM requires genetic testing. The sample is taken from the semimembranosus muscle, which is part of the rear limb hamstring muscles.
What breeds get PSSM?
Polysaccharide storage myopathy or PSSM is a muscle disease that occurs primarily in horses with Quarter Horse bloodlines such as Quarter Horses, Paint Horses, and Appaloosas. PSSM also occurs in other breeds including Drafts, Draft crossbreeds, and Warmbloods.
What is PSSM type 1?
Type 1 PSSM is the form of PSSM caused by the genetic mutation in the glycogen synthase 1 () gene. Type 2 PSSM represents one or more other forms of a muscle disease that are characterized by abnormal staining for muscle glycogen in microscopic examination of muscle biopsies.
How is Epsm treated in horses?
EPSM horses respond most favorably to both diet and exercise change. Typically, after 3-6 months of therapy, post-exercise serum concentrations of CK are within reference limits. Improvements in muscle function are proposed to be the result of segmental necrosis of fiber segments containing unmetabolized carbohydrates.
What causes a horse to Ty up?
Tying-up can be triggered by strenuous exercise in an unfit horse, stress, or even dietary imbalances.
How do you manage a horse in PSSM?
You can manage PSSM in your horse by providing an alternate energy source to sugar. Avoid feeding grains, sweet feeds and other feedstuffs high in sugar. Fat can be a great alternative. Rice bran or vegetable oils can stabilize blood sugar and provide energy.
PSSM in horses or Polysaccharide storage myopathy is a severe and inheritable glycogen storage disease characterized by muscle damage, stiffness, reluctance to move, and severe colic. The primary cause of the disease is overfeeding of readily digestible carbohydrates by the horse and genetic factors.
What do you need to know about EPSM in horses?
Affected horses are frequently dismissed as being “poor movers” or mistakenly diagnosed with hock problems, arthritis, anemia, back soreness, tying up and colic. The most reliable EPSM diagnostic is a muscle biopsy that can be examined for both cell abnormalities, indicating associated muscle damage, and the presence of stored polysaccharides.
What kind of PSSM does a warmblood horse have?
Type 2 PSSM refers to PSSM that occurs without genetic mutation. This PSSM is more common in warmbloods. Insulin is a hormone that controls a horse’s blood sugar level. Thus, sugar from a horse’s diet can stimulate an insulin response. PSSM horses tend to be more sensitive to insulin.
How does insulin affect PSSM in a horse?
Insulin can further worsen PSSM because it causes the GYS1 gene to produce even more glycogen. Plus sign (+) if content is closed, ‘X’ if content is open. You can manage PSSM in your horse by providing an alternate energy source to sugar.